The Hopi are a tribe of Native American people who primarily live on the 2,531-plus square miles of the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona, which is surrounded by the much-larger Navajo Reservation.

According to the 2010 U.S. census, there are 18,327 Hopi people in this country.

The Hopi language is one of 30 in the Uto-Aztecan language family.

When first encountered by the Spanish in the 16th century, the Native American cultures in the Southwest were referred to as pueblo people because they lived in villages (pueblos in Spanish).

Over the last few thousand years, Hopi ancestors migrated from all over the Southwest, Mexico and even further away to become Hopi.

Every Hopi and Hopi-Tewa clan has its own history. Clans are groups of families who trace descent in the mother's line. Ancient people of the Colorado Plateau who Hopi consider as ancestors include the people they call "Hisat'sinom."

Navajos and many archaeologists call them "Anasazi." You can visit the remains of their villages in places like Mesa Verde, Chaco Canyon, Wupatki and Walnut Canyon.

In the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, all the pueblos from Hopi to the Rio Grande drove the Spaniards out of their villages and down to El Paso. By 1700, the Spaniards had again conquered the New Mexico pueblos.

The Hopi First Mesa village of Walpi invited Tewa people from the Rio Grande to settle on First Mesa as warriors, to help defend the Hopi villages from an expected Spanish retaliation that never came.

The descendants of those Tewa warriors and their families are now known as Hopi-Tewa. They still live on First Mesa in Tewa Village (also known by its Hopi name, Hano), and speak their own Tewa language.

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A few notable Hopi include the following: Iris Nampeyo (1860-1942), potter; Lewis Tewanima (1888-1969), Olympic distance runner and silver medalist; Tuvi (Chief Tuba) (1810-1887), first Hopi convert to Mormonism after whom Tuba City was named; Diane Humetewa, U.S. Attorney for the District of Arizona; Dan Namingha, (born 1950), Hopi-Tewa painter and sculptor; Linda Lomahaftewa, printmaker, painter and educator; Michael Kabotie (1942-2009), painter, sculptor and silversmith; and Lori Piestewa (1979-2003), U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps soldier killed in Iraq War.

The Hopi tribe earns most of its income from natural resources, including mineral royalty income from coal mining. Tourism is another source of income, which has been enhanced by the 100-room Moenkopi Legacy Inn and Suites in Moenkopi, near Tuba City.

The Hopi Economic Development Corporation is the tribal enterprise that creates and oversees economic opportunities.

Tribal holdings include Hopi Cultural Center and Walpi Housing Management, as well as properties outside Hopi, such as three commercial spaces in Flagstaff.

Today, the Hopi tribe is federally recognized, with headquarters in Kykotsmovi.

-- Betsey Bruner, Kelley Hays-Gilpin and Wikipedia

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