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State-and-regional
If an Arizona resident harvests rainwater, will rebates come?
 
 10.12.17

TUCSON — Tucson and other parched Arizona cities offer rebates for businesses and homes that harvest rainwater, but the practice struggles to gain momentum in the Valley.

The ancient method can conserve thousands of gallons of water, reducing reliance on groundwater and other sources. Rebates can motivate people to put in water-collection tanks or landscape design systems to capture rain for indoor and outdoor use, conservation experts say.

Tucson leads Arizona in encouraging rainwater harvesting. Since 2010, city law requires at least half of the landscaping for any new building use rainwater. The city offers up to a $2,000 rebate for rain harvesting systems at homes and businesses that has become more popular over the years. Prescott and Flagstaff also offer rebates.

But in Maricopa County, where about 60 percent of Arizona residents live, experts said none of the 27 cities or towns offer rebates specifically for rainwater collection or storage systems.

“There are nowhere near enough people doing this,” said Tucson advocate Brad Lancaster, who harvests rainwater for almost all of his daily needs, from drinking water to washing dishes. “I don’t say this to be Dr. Doom, I say this to inspire, but we are moving at a glacial pace with this.”

To harvest or not harvest, that’s the question

Cities looking to encourage water conservation should consider offering rebates in order to heighten community interest, experts said.

“Phoenix cities need to adopt a rebate with specific language to rainwater harvesting that can help people understand the benefits of these systems,” said Ryan Wood, program manager for the Watershed Management Group’s Phoenix branch. “Rebates would help encourage folks to invest in a system.”

But some city leaders feel otherwise.

“It isn’t even a blip on our radar,” said Phoenix spokeswoman Stephanie Bracken.

The city believes that conservation practices are already strong, Bracken said, citing that overall water usage has declined since 1985 and because of this, such rebates aren’t needed.

Some cities, including Mesa and Chandler, offer versions of “turf removal” rebates, but simply eradicating grass is a “missed opportunity,” Wood said.

“The rebates are not specifically for passive earthworks and is missing the specific rainwater harvesting rebate as offered in Tucson,” Wood said.

Instead, business and homeowners should craft berms, swales and basins, a method otherwise known as “passive harvesting” or “earthworks,” to direct rainwater throughout a landscape. Done well, the rain could not only more effectively water desert plants, but also help recharge groundwater.

Lancaster encourages people to start with passive systems, where the cost of a new landscape is sometimes just “time and a shovel.”

For “active harvesting” systems, or ones that utilize a storage tank of sorts, the price tag starts at around $200 for a small residential home, but can cost thousands for commercial businesses, depending on factors such as location, the size of a building and the desired amount of storage.

One inch of rain on a 1,000 square-foot roof can collect about 600 gallons of rainwater to be stored for later indoor or outdoor use. Valley residents experience about eight inches of annual rainfall, potentially capturing 4,800 gallons of water a year.

“Simply put, every gallon you capture is a gallon you don’t need to pump,” Wood said.

Expanding the rainwater cause

Businesses and organizations look to expand rainwater harvesting efforts into areas where the practice is not as common.

The Tucson-based Watershed Management Group, which educates communities on how to implement environmentally friendly practices, opened another office in Phoenix about six years ago to start a long-term vision of expanding further into the Southwest.

The sheer size of the Phoenix area is a challenge for harvesting expansion, Wood said.

“There are over four million people here. Are we hitting every home? Do they even know about us? We have more outreach to do,” Wood said.

One of the group’s latest efforts is Hydrate Arizona, a five-part in-person series that introduces class participants to rainwater harvesting methods. The program launched in Phoenix 2015 and has since expanded to different cities including Mesa and Glendale, growing in class size from about 20 participants to more than 50, Wood said.

Cities in the Valley and elsewhere promote water conservation through other methods, including seminars and classes.

Wood described the overall progress as “slow moving but steady,” which seems to be the theme for other Arizona cities that now offer rebates, including Prescott.

When Barnabus Kane opened Skywater Rainwater Collection Systems in 2005, it was the only business in Prescott providing harvesting systems, he said.

“There were always interested homeowners, but it was very much a backyard hippie thing at first,” Kane said. “Only the outliers were doing it.”

Today, Kane’s business has expanded to include large-scale commercial systems in addition to residential systems. Some of the systems have been built outside of Prescott, where a rebate of 50 cents for every gallon of storage up to $500 is available.

The Skywater team recently installed large storage tanks on the municipal buildings in Lake Havasu City to capture rainwater roof runoff and condensation from evaporative cooling units.

The system has collected nearly 270,000 gallons of water since the installation in July, according to Briana Morgan, water conservation specialist with Lake Havasu City. The water covers 100 percent of the corporate yard’s irrigation needs.

Morgan hopes that the new system will inspire Lake Havasu City residents to consider installing harvesting systems and the city to consider offering rebates.

Drought influences rebate policies

Committed advocates and a city’s history with drought influence the creation of rainwater harvesting policies as progress sometimes comes from necessity and passion.

“Tucson’s water crisis really spurred development,” said Catlow Shipek, a founding member of the Watershed Management Group. “I see Phoenix without having that conservation ethic at the residential level, it will take time to build that momentum.”

Decades ago, Tucson’s only water source was its rapidly depleting groundwater, so the demand in other areas such as Phoenix, “was not quite as immediate,” Lancaster said.

Shipek credits Tucson’s robust rebate system to Lancaster and other city officials’ early efforts to popularize the practice.

Tucson’s rebate program has grown 35 percent since the 2012-13 fiscal year, from 296 applications processed for rainwater harvesting rebates to 438 so far this fiscal year, a water-department spokesman said.

“Prior to 2006, water harvesting for the most part didn’t exist,” Lancaster said. “It was here, but was very hidden and practiced by very few.”

Lancaster, who has lived in Tucson for nearly fifty years, said he uses only 10 to 12 gallons of rainwater a day, about 10 percent of what the average Arizonan uses. He started working with the city in the early 2000’s on the possibility of new laws and rebates.

Water conservation specialists hope that Tucson and other cities will continue rainwater harvesting efforts and others will take up the banner.

“We can’t get too proud here otherwise we’ll be blinded by that,” Lancaster said. “We need to continue evolving.”


Film on deadly Arizona wildfire comes as California burns
Film on deadly Arizona wildfire comes as California burns
 
 10.11.17

TEMPE, Ariz. (AP) — A movie that chronicles a 2013 wildfire that killed 19 Arizona firefighters debuts next week on the heels of another fire tragedy in California that has riveted the nation.

"Only the Brave" is based on the Granite Mountain Hotshots who died while fighting a wildfire near Yarnell, Arizona.

Actors from the movie appeared at a red carpet event in Arizona on Tuesday as relentless fires ravage wineries, rural towns and neighborhoods in Northern California — an event not lost on the cast and crew of the picture.

"When I turn the news on this morning, to see images that look like they were taken from our film, is surreal," director Joseph Kosinski said.

Fire officials say the wildfires in California have killed more than 20 people and destroyed at least 3,500 homes and businesses since they started Sunday.

Cast members Josh Brolin, Miles Teller and James Badge Dale attended the Arizona premiere with some of the firefighters' families and the lone member of the crew who survived.

On June 30, 2013, the 19 elite Arizona wildland firefighters were stationed in a relatively safe position on a ridgetop that already had burned. But for unknown reasons and without notifying anyone, they moved down the mountainside through an unburned area where they were trapped by a wall of flames when winds shifted the fire toward them.

Kosinski said he didn't want to make a sad movie and that he wanted it to celebrate the joy the men had for firefighting and the brotherhood they shared.

The lone survivor, Brendan McDonough, said seeing the movie was cathartic for him and he thought the movie "did our brothers justice."

"I think they really created an authentic film that really shows just what the job is about, what the lifestyle is, what the families go through," McDonough said.

McDonough served as the lookout for the crew when they descended into the brush-choked area. He notified the crew of the rapidly changing weather that sent winds swirling erratically and caused the fire to cut off their escape route.

Then, he swiftly left his post for safety. Fire managers have said he did exactly what he was supposed to.

Brolin plays Eric Marsh, who was the crew's superintendent and the oldest member of the group.

Brolin said he loves any project that has to do with firefighters and making people conscious that "these guys are putting themselves in peril constantly ... for the safety of their communities."

Jane Marsh, Marsh's mother, said she spent three hours with Brolin before they started filming the movie, which was shot in New Mexico.

"Even though I cried all through it when I first saw it in August, he portrayed Eric really well," Marsh said.


State-and-regional
Phoenix school district pulls plug on slavery computer game
Phoenix school district pulls plug on slavery computer game
 10.11.17

PHOENIX (AP) — A Phoenix school district is blocking an online game that simulated slavery after parents complained about its use in the classroom.

Phoenix Elementary School District officials said they are unsure how the game got into the classroom, but they blocked access to it on Tuesday after meeting with parents.

The game "Mission US: Flight to Freedom" put users into the persona of a 14-year-old girl attempting to escape a Kentucky plantation. Students had to navigate the plantation master's demands while plotting an escape down a river. If the attempt was unsuccessful, the girl would be sold back into slavery.

De'Lon Brooks told The Arizona Republic that his son, an Emerson Elementary School student, told him about the game last week.

"As a parent and as someone who grew up under civil-rights (movement) members, I couldn't allow my son to be subjected to that without my permission," Brooks said.

District spokeswoman Sara Bresnahan said the district is only aware of one seventh-grade classroom that played the game, but they were checking with teachers across the district's 13 elementary schools.

"My personal opinion is the content should not be used on our schools at all, so I'll be taking that recommendation to the administration," Bresnahan told KPHO-TV. "In the meantime the district very quickly pulled all the content."

The district's online repository of teaching tools did not include the game, but it did include a similar game about a 14-year-old Jewish girl immigrating to New York from Russia, Bresnahan said.

The creators of the game did immediately respond to The Arizona Republic's request for comment. An online description of the game stated that it aimed to help students "develop a more personal, memorable, and meaningful connection with complex historical content."


Local
Arizona poverty rate remains among highest in nation
 
 10.12.17

WASHINGTON – Despite posting a sharp decrease in its poverty rate over the last two years, Arizona continued to have some of the highest poverty in the nation in 2016, the latest Census numbers show.

Arizona’s poverty rate of 16.4 percent was well above the national rate of 14 percent that year, and ranged from a high of 38 percent below the poverty line in Apache County and a low of 10.1 percent in neighboring Greenlee County, according to the Census’ American Community Survey.

The numbers did not come as a surprise to advocates and economists, who said the state is still struggling to climb out of the recession and is hindered by a poor education system and low-wage jobs. The state had the eighth-highest poverty rate in 2016.

“We still have far too many (in poverty) and we’re still doing far too little,” to pull them out, said Cynthia Zwick, executive director of the Arizona Community Action Association.

The federal poverty threshold for a family of four in 2016 was $24,563, according to standards set by the Department of Health and Human Services.

The Census Bureau said that Arizona saw a 1.8 percent decline between 2014 and 2016 in the number of people living below the poverty line, which means an estimated 91,000 Arizonans climbed out of poverty in that period. But more than 1.1 million in Arizona still fell below the threshold.

The national poverty rate fell by 1.5 percent in the same period, according to the Census.

While he did not challenge the Census numbers, Valley economist Elliott Pollack said the focus on statewide numbers is “literally meaningless,” because it fails to capture the gap between starkly different communities in the state.

Taken by itself, the Greater Phoenix area has a lower poverty rate than the nation and a higher median income increase, Pollack said, while rural communities struggle.

“We’re talking about totally different animals,” Pollack said.

Median income in the Phoenix area was 107 percent of the national average in 2006 before dropping “like a ton of bricks” during the recession, to bottom out at 91.3 percent of the U.S. average, he said. But Valley incomes have climbed back above the national average since then, he said.

Still, Zwick said, the number of jobs paying less than $21,000 rose to 28 percent of the state’s employment in 2016. She said entry-level positions that people might have used as a springboard in the past are now often contracted out and “jobs with retirement programs are few and far between.”

“All of this can be tied to wages,” Zwick said. “The employment structure has changed.”

About half of the people who lost jobs in the recession took low-wage positions where they were “under-employed,” or overqualified and underpaid with fewer benefits, Zwick said.

Immigrants and minority groups were hit especially hard. She said immigrant families can face poverty into second and third generations while they establish themselves in this country. Arizona also has the nation’s third-largest number of American Indians, a third of whom live in poverty in vast rural communities, Zwick said.

While paychecks have been slow to increase, so too has public assistance for those in need, said Pati Urias, a spokeswoman for the Children’s Action Alliance. She blamed the “incremental change” in the state’s poverty to its “stringent and restrictive rules” on funding public assistance.

Programs like Temporary Assistance for Needy Families are “absolutely critical for people to pull themselves away from a life of poverty,” Urias said. That includes the 26 percent of Arizona children who live in poverty, according to data from the alliance.

“They need socks, they need clothes, they need things,” Urias said.

She and Zwick agreed family support programs have helped lower the poverty rate, and both called for expanding instead of cutting what has proved to be a lifeline for so many.

Children in impoverished neighborhoods have less access to resources, tutoring and other programs, which makes it too easy for them to fall later in life.

“The education system has failed us,” Zwick said.