As friends and family members sit down to Thanksgiving dinner on Thursday, many conversations likely involve reminiscing about the past.
For the longtime Flagstaff families profiled below, that past includes decades and in some cases nearly a century of history in this mountain town. Here's a sampling of their stories about Thanksgiving, family ties and Flagstaff roots.
The Oak Creek Canyon house where Andy Dierker Perry and Don Perry will spend their Thanksgiving Day exudes Flagstaff history. Andy Perry’s father built the house out of World War II bomb boxes recovered from Camp Navajo and salvaged its beams from a water tower that used to stand at the Fort Valley Experimental Station.
Both husband and wife grew up in Flagstaff and now their children and grandchildren live in town. Andy Perry’s parents were doctors who came to help open a hospital in town while Don’s father was a well driller who sank the first Woody Mountain groundwater wells.
Thanksgivings were big in Andy Perry’s house. The dinner would include her and her five siblings as well anyone else her mom found who needed a place to go for the holiday, Perry said. Her mom would set the table with sterling silver silverware and candelabra, silver goblets, place cards and elaborately folded napkins.
She always cooked two turkeys to feed the crowd at the table, Andy Perry said.
Since her mother died in 2010, the Thankgsiving gathering is decidedly less formal and takes place at the family’s Oak Creek house rather than at her mother’s house in Flagstaff, Andy Perry said.
But she does carry on some elements of her mother’s traditions. She brings down the same cloth dinner napkins and makes place cards for the guests at the table.
Sometimes she’ll even bring down the family’s plate silver goblets
"It just makes ice water better,” she said.
The year 1923 marks the beginning of the Anaya family’s history in Flagstaff. That year, Lupe Gil Anaya arrived at the foot of the San Francisco Peaks with her parents and brothers. She was three months old and her father was seeking work in the timber industry. Now, the Anaya family stretches five generations and 95-year-old Lupe Anaya sits atop the family tree.
When about 30 members of the family gather for Thanksgiving, Anaya will be among her children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great-grandchildren.
Along with the traditional Thanksgiving dishes, the holiday celebration comes with a helping of Flagstaff history, thanks to Anaya. At gatherings like these, she said she ends up talking about “what was and what is not” — what Flagstaff was like and the many ways it is changing in ways she wished it wouldn’t.
The stories of the past spill from Anaya. Memories of the Mexican hamburgers she made for her children to sell around their Plaza Vieja neighborhood, of living next to Our Lady of Guadalupe Chapel because her family took care of the church, of spending Thanksgiving in the shantytown that was home to Flagstaff's sawmill workers.
With hands moving in stride with her words, Anaya jumps from scene to scene of Flagstaff’s history.
Thanksgiving in her younger days featured rabbits, chickens and ducks that the family raised and slaughtered, Anaya said. While that’s no longer part of the family dinner, they do add their own twist to some foods, Anaya’s son Johnny Anaya said.
Along with turkey, their meal will have chilis, tortillas and, for something sweet, baked pumpkin topped with milk and sugar, he said.
Deanna Tissaw Garbarino still has her family's group photo from Thanksgiving Day, 1955, showing 21 smiling faces that span three generations. But the roots of Garbarino’s family tree go much deeper than that.
Her great grandmother Matilda Hoffman arrived in the area by covered wagon in the late 1800s from Michigan. She went on to marry Jesse Gregg and the two started a ranch in Fort Valley, growing potatoes and alfalfa on land that is now part of the Cheshire subdivision. The family’s original homestead cabin was saved from the bulldozers and now stands rebuilt behind the Pioneer Museum.
By the time the 1950s rolled around, Garbarino’s family had moved into downtown Flagstaff. Her family and her grandparents lived next door to each other in small stone houses on Aspen Avenue, she said.
Thanksgivings were always hosted at her grandparents’ house, Garbarino said. Somehow her grandmother would make up the entire turkey dinner from scratch in a kitchen that couldn’t have been more than five or six feet across, she said.
The whole family would be there, with adults probably crammed around the dining room table and children eating on the coffee table or the floor, she said.
“In the picture grandma was just glowing because the whole family was there,” Garbarino said. “The main part of Thanksgiving was getting everyone there.”
Although she is the only one from her family still living in Flagstaff, Garbarino said she couldn’t imagine living anywhere else. Having a deep family history here makes it even better, she said.
“You always feel like you have a place where you belong,” she said.
Mary Vasquez-Powell’s family has been in the Flagstaff area since 1912. Her grandfather and grandmother emigrated from Mexico, drawn to the area’s logging industry. Her grandfather cut wood for the railroad and for the city steam plant, then got a job at the Saginaw sawmill, she said. After World War II, Vasquez-Powell’s grandfather, father and uncle started Vasquez Brothers Logging that worked in the area’s forests until 1989.
Vasquez-Powell said that home for most of her childhood was a piece of property on Lake Mary Road. Back then, it was just their family and one other, she said. Her grandparents had a small house beside her parent’s house and a big concrete area connected the two.
She remembers it snowing much more than it does now, but on Thanksgivings when the weather would allow, Vasquez-Powell said meal preparations would take place in that concrete area. They would set up a grill and play basketball or run little relay races that day, she said.
Every morning before the festivities began, family members would attend Mass at Our Lady of Guadalupe Chapel, which her grandfather had helped build, Vasquez-Powell said. The church has a tradition of blessing dinner rolls that get sent home with church members to share with their families at Thanksgiving, she said.
Her Thanksgiving is now much smaller, but Vasquez-Powell said she still plans to go to Mass and get rolls if the church is still making them.
Danny Hickey’s family has a long history of spending Thanksgivings in Flagstaff. Hickey’s father was born in a tent near Lower Lake Mary in 1928 and since then most of the family has stuck around to call the Flagstaff area home. For Thanksgiving, Hickey said his sons, grandsons and mother-in-law won’t have to travel far for the family gathering at his house. All of them live within about three miles of each other.
They also have passed through many of the same doors and hallways. Hickey bought his parents' old home and raised his boys there and both he and his children went to Flagstaff High School. That’s where his parents first met as well. Sechrist Elementary has also seen three generations of Hickey boys — Danny, his sons and now his grandsons.
It’s kind of neat knowing the area and knowing the places his children and grandchildren now frequent, he said. Unlike many families during Thanksgiving, seeing his grandchildren isn’t a rarity for Hickey.
He sees at least one of them every day, whether it’s attending their sporting events or watching the boys while his sons are at work.
Every seven years or so Thanksgiving falls on another special day for Hickey: his birthday.
“My grandpa told me I ruined a perfectly good dinner,” he said.
When the Flagstaff City Council decided in February to delay for 18 months a special election that could have repealed the new city law hiking the minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2021, Rick Hargrove realized his company would have to make a drastic change.
In the four months since the city’s minimum wage increased to $10.50, Hargrove, co-owner and chief operating officer of Abrio Care, has moved four of its Flagstaff group homes for special needs adults to the Phoenix area and will move the remaining three homes within the next few weeks.
When the move is complete, 20 individuals with disabilities will have left Flagstaff and moved to Phoenix to continue their care with Abrio. Two individuals have chosen to stay in Flagstaff and transfer their care to the Hozhoni Foundation, Hargrove said.
Abrio has also closed its day program in Flagstaff and plans to open one in Phoenix instead. The Abrio program served individuals in resident programs with other vendors in addition to Abrio.
“It’s almost like ethnic cleansing, only it’s disability cleansing,” Hargrove said. “We are cleansing people with disabilities and indigent seniors out of our community.”
Increases to the city’s minimum wage beyond the state’s have left service providers in a bind, said Armando Bernasconi, the CEO of Quality Connections, which provides residential programs, a day program and employment opportunities for people with disabilities.
The state minimum is $10 an hour and will increase in stages to $12 by 2020. Flagstaff’s minimum will grow to $15.50 by 2022 unless repealed by voters in the special election next November and reset to essentially match the state law.
Most companies like Abrio and Quality Connections receive most of their funding from the federal government through Medicaid. Between 20 and 25 percent of the organizations’ funding comes from the Arizona Legislature, Bernasconi said.
For the Flagstaff provider network, which includes nine organizations that are funded by Medicaid, the discrepancy between funding they expect to receive to cover state minimum wage increases and what they need to fund Flagstaff minimum wage increases in the coming year is about $860,000, Bernasconi said. However, depending on state funding, that number could actually be closer to $950,000, said Monica Attridge, the CEO of Hozhoni.
Throughout the provider network, 32 people with disabilities have lost their jobs or had their hours cut so much they are not considered to be employed, Bernasconi said. Due to budget cuts, 56 people who work with individuals with disabilities have also lost their jobs and a total of 26 people who reside in group homes have been moved outside of Flagstaff.
To keep providers afloat for the fiscal year, which includes the city’s increase to $11 per hour in January, Bernasconi approached the city council this month to ask that the council pick up the difference in funding.
“It is only right that because Flagstaff voted this into law that Flagstaff should have to pay for it,” Bernasconi said.
Bernasconi said there are about 900 people in the city and nearby communities receiving services from providers, including many who are either mostly or completely in need of assistance like for eating, restroom needs, bathing and dressing. If the individuals were not able to access that kind of care in Flagstaff, they would most likely leave the city to get the care they require, he said.
The provider network employs over 1,000 people in Flagstaff and has an economic impact of about $25 million, Bernasconi said.
The $860,000 would “prevent providers from going out of business” in 2018, Bernasconi said. He said he does not know where the city would get the extra money to fund care providers, but the city spends money on things that are not core services, like parks and public art.
“Are those monies being spent really more important?” Bernasconi asked. “If something isn’t done, 900 people with disabilities will be relocated.”
The uncertainty with funding has made planning for the future very difficult, Bernasconi said. The funding he is requesting from the city council would help solve the issues with funding to providers, at least in the short term, but the effects of an increasing minimum wage are far-reaching for people with disabilities.
“Our guys are having a heck of a hard time finding jobs in Flagstaff,” Bernasconi said of people with disabilities who use Quality Connections for employment opportunities.
To help encourage businesses to hire workers with disabilities, Bernasconi suggested the city implement some kind of tax incentive employers could receive.
At Hozhoni, the increased cost meant eliminating six positions, including a program director, who was not replaced when she retired, Attridge said.
Hozhoni serves about 80 clients in the residential program in Flagstaff and about 100 people attend Hozhoni’s day and employment programs, some of whom live in the foundation’s residential programs and others who come from other residences. The foundation employs about 150 people in Flagstaff.
The minimum wage debate has put service providers in a difficult position, Attridge said.
“We certainly value our caregivers highly, but we are not able to pay them what they are worth,” she said. “It’s hard for them to see us advocate for a lower minimum wage, because they’re worth more. Sometimes it’s hard for them to understand that.”
Hozhoni started in Flagstaff and Attridge said she does not want the organization to leave the city, and said the foundation is looking to expand into other funding sources, like rehabilitation, to provide services around the state. However, she said she is not looking to expand in Flagstaff.
However, for the clients at Abrio, the move to the Phoenix area has not been all bad, Hargrove said.
“They are thriving now that they are here,” Hargrove said. “There are so many more things to do.”
Hargrove said he was driving one of the moving vans with some clients during the move.
“One of them turned to me and said, ‘I’m a big city girl now,’” he said.
The lower cost of living has also been a benefit.
“With the money we were spending in Flagstaff, we were able to get much nicer houses in Phoenix,” he said. “They are very excited about all the new opportunities for things to do.”
A lack of money has also detrimentally affected the clients’ experiences and opportunities, Attridge said.
“If we don’t have enough staff, it means our clients aren’t getting out and doing things,” she said. “Nationwide, there is a huge push for people with intellectual disabilities to get out and do things in the community, but at the same time the money is being cut.”
Attridge said she feels that people with disabilities are not as respected as they used to be.
“In my mind, it seems like people with intellectual or cognitive disabilities are being devalued,” she said. “Now, it almost seems like they’re a bother, they’re not being seen as individuals who deserve the same opportunities and experiences as everyone else.”
LONDON — Venice is planning to divert massive cruise liners. Barcelona has cracked down on apartment rentals.
Both are at the forefront of efforts to get a grip on "overtourism," a phenomenon that is disrupting communities, imperiling cherished buildings and harming the experience of travelers and local residents alike.
Tourism-phobia has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in European destinations where visitors crowd the same places at the same time.
The backlash has even given rise to slogans such as "Tourists go home" and "Tourists are terrorists."
"This is a wake-up call," Taleb Rifai, secretary general of the United Nations' World Tourism Organization, told tourism ministers and industry executives last week at the World Travel Market in London.
The resentment could rise as tourism increases. The UNWTO forecasts 1.8 billion trips by 2030, up from 1.2 billion in 2016. Add in the 5 billion domestic trips now, and that's a lot of tourists. Cheap airfare is helping to fuel the growth, along with massive growth in international travel from countries like China.
Yet many destinations rely on tourism as a primary source of jobs and prosperity. Tourism accounts for around 10 percent of the world's annual GDP, bringing hard currency into many countries that desperately need it, like Greece.
But tourism can also harm the quality of life for residents, with packed beaches, locals priced out of housing and congested streets in the narrow byways of European cities dating back to medieval times. Longer term problems include environmental damage and the long-term sustainability of cities as viable places to live and work.
For all these reasons, managing tourism is a prominent topic of debate in the industry and a central theme at the World Travel Market.
Rifai, who leaves the UNWTO at the end of the year, dismissed the idea that growth is "the enemy." Pulling up the drawbridge, he argued, would be irresponsible when tourism accounts for one in 10 jobs worldwide.
What is required, he stressed, is the need to manage tourism in a "sustainable and responsible" way that benefits local communities.
Efforts to manage overtourism are becoming more innovative and increasingly tapping new technologies. For example, apps can help tourists visit popular destinations at less busy times. And while critics say Airbnb has priced out locals, its supporters say home rentals can ease pressure on cities by spreading visitors far and wide.
Patrick Robinson, Airbnb's director of public policy for Europe, Middle East and Africa, noted that last year 69 percent of the platform's users in Amsterdam stayed away from the city center.
In some cases, tourist quotas make sense. In the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador has imposed a 100,000 annual limit on visitors. The Croatian city of Dubrovnik, where visitor numbers surged after the Adriatic Sea resort was used as a setting for the series "Game of Thrones," has mulled limiting those entering the city's medieval walls to 4,000 daily.
Other strategies include promoting offseason visits, opening up new destinations or tweaking marketing. Prague is pushing local walks off the beaten track, while London promotes neighborhoods such as Greenwich and Richmond.
"There is no one solution for all, every destination is different," said Gloria Guevara, the new president and CEO of the London-based World Travel & Tourism Council.
Barcelona, which became a tourist juggernaut after the 1992 Olympics, has outlined measures to balance the needs of locals and visitors. The city has cracked down on unlicensed rentals and established a tourism council that includes residents, business, unions and government. The hope is that by listening to all the stakeholders, Barcelona can reduce the strains tourism places on the city and ameliorate tensions between residents and visitors.
"Businesses do not want to put their customers in places where they are being treated as an unwelcome pest, and I think some of the language that we've seen that's hostile to tourism verges on hate speech," said Tim Fairhurst, head of strategy and policy at the European Tourism Association.
Venice has witnessed a tourism backlash in response to the monumental increase in visitors, many of whom irk locals by going to the same spots at the same time.
"The problem at the moment is the intolerable concentration of human numbers in these small spaces which are still thoroughfares in what is still a living city," said Jonathan Keates, chairman of the Venice In Peril Fund.
Last week, a plan was announced to block giant cruise ships from steaming past Venice's iconic St. Mark's Square. Few think it's enough, and there's talk of higher taxes on tourists, timed tickets to venues or even the introduction of turnstiles.
Everyone, though, has a role to play, including the tourists themselves.
Venice recently introduced the "Enjoy Respect Venice" initiative which controls, fines or disciplines travelers who strip and jump into the canals or who eat on church steps. The new measures, according to Keates, clamp down on those "treating the place as a kind of extended marble beach rather than a viable city."
Fairhurst said "simple measures" can make a difference, such as changing opening hours or increasing parking facilities.
"There are lots of ways in which we use our cities inefficiently, where with a much more holistic and long-term approach, we could do better," he said.